Since 1968, I exclusively work with a computer and therefore with the logic of a programming language to create art. Through this radical approach in creating my art which I consider an important part of my contribution to a systematic art, I learned an astonishing new way of thinking about my work. In fact, the computer became a physical and intellectual extension in the process of creating my art. Usually, visual artists order their artistic thoughts and intentions from a visual understanding of things. The realization of visual imagination is limited to subjective and personal preferences, leading always to incomplete and imprecise results. The nature of programming leads to a more global and yet detailed view of one's idea. My research centers on the logical content of an idea and the search for general rules which describe that idea. I write procedures which generate results that are the logical consequences of these complex and multilayered rules. These results are rich with visual surprises beyond anyones imagination and preferences, thus reducing the above mentioned psychological incompleteness. Since 1972, all my algorithms (rules) are based on the logical structure of cubes (lines, planes and their relationships etc.) and since 1976 on n-dimensional hyper-cubes. This structure became the basic alphabet of my work. I use a variety of methods to generate subsets of these structures, in order to break the symmetry and create new visual constellations. Unable to detect the complete system the viewer, nevertheless, notices a strong visual force holding everything together. This force is created by the logic of the inherent relationships in the underlying structure. Once the logic of a procedure is established, i.e. the program, a myriad of possible solutions are at hand. Though visually different and most of all unpredictable all results are of equivalent aesthetic value because they are based on the same internal logic. It is, however, not the system or logic I want to present in my work but the visual invention which results from it. My artistic goal is reached when a finished work can visually dissociate itself from its logical content and convincingly stand as an independent abstract entity. Top
About this work
Most of my creative work is now in the realm of generative art and addresses interests explored as part of complexity science. Generative art refers to any art practice where the artist cedes control to a system that operates with a degree of relative autonomy, and contributes to or results in a completed work of art. Systems may include natural language instructions, biological or chemical processes, computer programs, machines, self-organizing materials, mathematical operations, and other procedural inventions. Complexity science is the study of systems that include large numbers of components interacting in nonlinear ways, and often leading to surprisingly self-organized behavior. In common language one is reminded of the saying that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Examples of complex systems are familiar to everyone and include the weather, the stock market, the brain (as studied by biologists), the mind (as studied by psychologists), the predation and population cycles of animals in an ecosystem, the competition of genes and resulting evolution of a given species, and the rise and fall of cultures and empires. These systems exhibit emergent behavior which is deterministic yet dynamic and ever changing. Complex systems develop in ways that can be adaptive, evolving, dramatic, fecund, catastrophic, or so unpredictable as to seem random. By using complex systems to make generative art I hope to create works that exhibit the distribution, emergence, co-evolution, feedback, chaos, and connectionism that are the hallmarks of complexity in nature. The drawings from my Untitled (Generative Body) series are created using computer-based systems that simulate biological evolution. Through a process of reproduction, mutation, and selection I develop color schemes, compositions, and mark styles that evolve and combine to create each drawing. The drawings are then digitally generated rather than manually executed. Working in this way I interact with, and am constantly surprised by, a breeding process not unlike that which gardeners and farmers practice in the creation of improved crops and animals. A computer running a Generative Toy has been included in the exhibit to allow visitors to personally experience this creative process. The Traveling Salesman mural series explores emergence in a different way. The design for each mural is uniquely generated for each specific wall. A large number of random points are generated, and then a computer program calculates the optimally shortest line that connects each point once and only once. Somewhat mysteriously, each resulting mural exhibits a shared visual style. In nature the beauty of a tree or a plant is the result of nature solving an optimization problem; how can the plant gather as much sunlight as possible using the minimum amount of organic resources? Both optimization examples suggest that beauty is not meaningless, nor is it the exclusive province of individual genius. Beauty is posited as being both meaningful and publicly understandable. Top
TALYSIS II and III (2006-2008)
Talysis II/III (real-time software) is constructed with a circuit of video renderers, each passing its output to the next renderer to produce a closed visual information loop, a software simulation of analogue video feedback. Visual feedback loops are recursive function simulators. Symmetrical geometric patterns are generated as a single unit (white square) is transformed a little in shape, position, orientation and hue while it s conveyed around the circuit. Talysis II was commissioned for the Artificial Emotion 3.0 expo in Sao Paulo, Brazil 2006. Talysis II/III is inspired by Alan Turing s paper on the chemical and biological basis for morphogenesis written shortly before his death in the early 50 s. Video Feedback as an iterative function can be used to mimic reaction- diffusion equations and produce glyphs of significant morphogenetic shape and form Talysis II/III has since been shown at Playgrounds Festival, Tilburg, Netherlands 2007. It was the subject of a paper the artist had published and then presented at Bridges conference on the intersection of maths and art, Lueewarden, Netherlands, 2008.
DAUB II (2008)
The Daub II series of prints is generated using a bespoke drawing program whereby a virtual brush is constrained in 3D space. The system has some degree of autonomy and some degree of user interaction encouraging interplay between user and computer. Inspired by the process of biomineralization, it uses video footage of Ferro Fluids as raw material and transmutates the magnetic liquid forms into rock formations and biological crystalline structures. Daub II was originally commissioned by WIRED magazine for the article Painted by Numbers (WIRED 03/08). Scientists and engineers have long envied nature s ability to design crystalline structures whose properties are often superior to those of similar synthetic materials. Through a process called biomineralization, proteins orchestrate the growth processes of many natural minerals into designs that confer exceptional structural properties.
Structure W (2007)
Structure-W is an (re)evolving geometric architectural structure. Inspired by gyroscopes and anti-gravity mechanics. Gyroscopes produce a force when twisted that operates out of plane and can appear to lift themselves against gravity. Although this force is well understood to be illusory, even under Newtonian models, it has nevertheless generated numerous claims of anti-gravity devices and any number of patented devices. Made and performed at Hacktronic, Boston, 2007 and Lille Planetarium Oct 2008.
Software: VVVV Top
Jesus Ruiz Durand
Mandelbrot ways and fractals
The most interesting thing of this artwork is in the mathematical components that define fractals. These are simple formulas -dynamic and non linear systems- that can be visualized by topological sets. The complexity that can be obtained, if its equations are indefinitely iterated and if we feedback each new equation with the result obtained, is simply unlimited. The concept of self similarity and scaling applied as tools to generate fractal series make them even more interesting, not only from the plastic point of view, but philosophical as well. These entities, algorithmically structured, can speak different sensitive languages that human senses and intelligence can feel and understand. Thus, we can make images of outstanding beauty and complexity, in which we can discover infinite landscapes, without end and that can be explored discovering forms that are self constructed by subtle and exquisite variations. Where is the root of the functions that bring all this to existence? It could be that the same nature and the cosmos, for our senses, are just a perceptible metaphors created by a simple set of mathematical formulas that grows continuously and generate thousands of infinte mathematical series that transform space, matter, life, emotions and every existing thing in a way that is too much complex and huge for our senses and intelligence?
Inca Tokapu and the poetics of Vallejo
A hermetic language in the process of revelation. Tokapus, small geometric figures enclosed en rectangular shapes that are used en Inca elite textiles, in colonial paintings of the Spanish conquest, in the chronicles of Huaman Poma and in many other important documents, have been recently considered object of important investigations. Tokapus have been classified as a Inca symbolic or writing system that, along with kipus and Quelcas and sculptures and architecture embed the numeric, linguistic and conceptual knowledge used by Andean masters. Our interest in Tokapus, albeit their plastic and chromatic value, is focused on their symbolic intention and the underlaying system of writing and communication. Waman Poma, our great master, writer, artist, politician, historian, reporter, counselor, typographer, calligrapher, contortionist, eternal fugitive and critic of pedant priests and bloody colonial power. He made his way, with his torero and dancer moves the Spanish barbarities to save his life work, more than a thousand of folios written and designed with documentary precision and consistent concentration. The Felipe Tokapus speak in quechua the names of Inca sovereigns and store secret messages behind innocent geometric figures that seems just ornamental designs. Cesar Vallejo, our poet that more than everyone contributed to develop the ontological presence of a universal and hybrid human being as citizen of a complex social system that is forming from the consciousness of the eclectic nature of its roots. In Trilce, Vallejo destroys the written language to reinvent it and make it sing new inedited melodies that cant be expressed with the traditional forms of academic syntax. The current dictionary is not enough for the communication level that he seeks, so new words and codes are necessary, and he invented them. We can associate the Waman Poma and Inca Tokapus with the conceptual research of Vallejo, to try links to the geometric metaphor of Tokapus with ther new plastic style that defines digital visual poetics. Top
Hibridos is a set of VBasic and CSharp interactive applications to investigate morphogenesis y new creative tools. The project focuses on generative and genetic techniques. Many modules of the package are dedicated to genetic procedures and have been specifically developed for this artwork to process and mix the genetic codes of forms. Each genetic foem is represented by a generative grammar, specifically, by a L-System, that is a finite set of symbols -a string of alphanumeric characters- that represent a 3D object or parts of it. This set is developed starting with few symbols, called the axiom, that using a set of rules that defines how the symbols change, grows until the final string is produced. Then each symbol of the string is interpreted by the parser to draw 3D forms. To hybridize the forms the software reads each character of two L-Systems and generates a new character and a new L_System, exactly in the way farmers breed DNAs of animals and plants. With this process I m not playing hi-tech, but I m trying to investigate natural and artificial forms and new ways to generate forms that cant be done with traditional tools. The goal is to use these new tools in design and architecture.
a) L-System design. First we build the axiom, the rules and the main parameters of the system.
b) Generative process. The L-System is developed following the rules established previously. At the end the final string is obtained.
c) Breeding process. In an apposite form two L-Systems are introduced, then the characters are compared to each orher following user defined rules (union, intersection, etc.); in other words, characters can be joined (in this case the new string is longer the two ancestors) or some character can be stronger then others and so can delete them or be deleted from the final string.
d) Parser. Once the new L-System is finished, a module called parser perform the task of transforming the symbols into 3D geometry.
e) To render 3D data the system is exported to a render engine such POVRay, a freeware ray tracing rendering application. The renderer creates a true color ray-traced image of the L-System geometry.
The package is freeware and can be downloaded from http://www.digitalpoiesis.org with its manuals and documentation.
The main goal is not to create new beautiful or strange forms, but to understand how; from simplicity, complex forms can arise and whih are the tools that information technology offers to artists, researchers, teachers and students interested in this new fields of creativity. Specifically, this project aims to:
Explore generative grammars creative capabilities
Explore formal and generative qualities of genetic techniques
Understand natural forms
Develop new artistic/scientific tools Top
Universidad del Salvador
Digital art, technology and poetry
Martha Perez de Giuffré
The theoretical analysis on digital art in general run by two fields of parallel issues that concern the relationship between technology as a tool of art and the artistic product of such an instrument. The meeting place between the two is always the role of technology and its limits. In the first field, the analysis and discussion focus on the cultural history of which came from the technological development, the nature of this development and their progressive impact on individual and social life. This involves issues relating to evolution and change the model of knowledge. The assertions of physics during the last decades of the nineteenth century established new categories in the epistemological model prevailing until then. The investigations made by Einstein about the universe confirmed it as a physical movement and the absence of a real quiet, reflective certain instances open on time going 'beyond physics'. The model that emerges from Einstein and Maxwell and extending over the century, involves a vision of the universe that naturally comes together with the developments in the field of philosophy of life - durée - from Henri Bergson. The convergence of physics and philosophy paves the way in which Heidegger tries to overcome traditional metaphysics on the basis of the event, the process of revealing the truth in their occurrence. A new conception of time as open events steps then opened, coinciding with the research in art (Picasso and Delaunay among others) and explore the succession and simultaneity from painting and the interaction of the arts (Cage), in the first half of the twentieth century So categories interactivity and simultaneity are consciously active from early-century art, then enhanced by digital technology. Within the first field, follow the themes of the cultural reception of the works of digital art and the issues of social discourse, inclusive or not, and new forms of movement, as well as economic relations, as the tools technological objects of consumption. Regarding the movement all relational possibilities between technology and art are generating new combinations and alliances so expansive. Internet, CD-Rom, video, virtual galleries and net art are some of the distributors of works that propose new forms of artistic experience. However, the second field questions about the relationship between digital technology and art, takes place in the theoretical academic art critics, curators, philosophers of aesthetics. Aesthetic philosophy, with its radical questions about the way the truth in art and the understanding and interpretation of the work has recognized that the progressive conception which took place throughout the twentieth century influenced by the advance of technology model in culture, a reflection towards art and design hermeneutics predominant and almost unique, embodied in discursive rather than the experiential. In this state of things will emerge from the reflection of the creators an artistic reflection that brings into play the relationship between art and technology focusing on the central question of whether the artwork is that the language-or technology-technology is half clear that only offers the possibility of opening up new forms. This refers to whether the work matrix technology meets aesthetics predetermined by the instrument, and can only move within its limits, or the technology proposed categories which lead to areas of untapped artistic creation and experimentation. The question across all the debates is whether the discursivity art digital technology, the tool and language, the software and interface, are the corpus of the logical-conceptual art, or are a new tool that invites to compose works in new categorical space and time, to share with the new host of poetic production regions from the experience of the work. Software, hardware interfaces and even the instruments to which they require in this regard which are transparent. The opposite would lead to a purely conceptual aesthetic, an art about self, which forms only would become metaphors of fractal software. When in fact the artwork, once dominated the trade, such as Paul Klee said, sets up work in dialogue with the field instrument (which is) to put the viewer in touch with a dimension of meaning that transcends the same forms, but experience that would not be without them nor without the viewer and his world, to interpret. In summary, you should remember here the distinction made by Adorno (1) between-the-art relating to the mechanics of composition (led by the practical reason and guided by intuition, we would add) - and the technology to production process of determining and product. If we recognize, as Kurzweil (2) that the mind of man still remains the largest interrelacionalidad speed and add it again, you can capture the duration and simultaneity through intuition (Bergson) then digital technology in the hands the creator, but it will not be an instrument technician predeterminante laid out first. Digital artists exposing in Artware5 showed this widely. Their works emerge from a process-related research topics about the natural and the technological by linking artistic creation with new digital categories temporary and biological environment.
Fabricio Micheli's, Entropy, departs from an investigation of the concept of entropy in irreversible physical and temporal process of a system assumed to be closed (Clasius) and the uncertainty principle (Heisemberg) to align then the probability of new physics (Prigogine / Stenger) in which the notion of statistical probability allows the emergence of novelty, where Micheli is set to create. It establishes a dialogue between physics and art having a relationship is the continuity of the process time (arrow of time). The closed system of deterministic design then becomes an open system, which allows the artist to establish relations of parallelism that are inscribed in a sort of fractal mimesis between the real physical world, natural, concrete and experienced and digital art. The work produced is open, and progresses in terms of becoming a developed from the notions of randomness and disorder, following the same pattern of evolution of the universe and strengthening this condition by means of interactive intervention. Entropy presents images that are highly symbolic, flowing, and give visual substance to occur in a real space-time artistic open. Textures of varying intensity, ethereal, carnal, or compact, are constantly transformed into the dynamic audio-visual. The sound is transmuted into visual data, and vice versa, so inescindible. Interactivity also allows the multiplication of random processes within the continuity of his unfinished transit. The artist, in short, resolves the relationship between digital technology and the world with new categories of emergency and opened within the continuity of processes, as a place of artistic creation.
Marcos Luft's Anemocoria, departs from a natural (wind: dispersal of seeds of some plants through space by the wind. The dispersion element mobilizes the interpretation of the artist in poetic terms, not conceptual. Using the notion of desfondamiento (Vattimo) and its corollary of displacement, proposed that the work of art requires an accurate observations of the normal displacement of meanings, as an indigent conceptual chasm to reach the play against the world assuming that it proposes. Luft connects the notion of with space travel milano plant through random passages in relation to the wind, making a work that, in addition to being the bearer of a message, says the artist, also the interactive mode for the user to reinvent each stretch between the parties other than generating new readings, and sketches of variables from multiple perspectives. The frugality of the images of wind stresses dialectical fields along the journey of the kite to your destination. Explosion of light and pregnancy sunsets, space and translucent compact spaces, bodies of the transitional flight delayed visually-flower relationship in the environment, presenting a kind of mapping images of a fugitive flight that goes through all the stress. In proposing the creation Luft hypertextual reading of the road, and Interactive opening leads to the incorporation of the user to a truly multidimensional experience.
Marisa Brezicki's Metamorfomori, departs from the concept of metamorphosis and transformation of substances, to present his work in the process of mori (silkworm) in becoming a mutation at the same time complex, dynamic and orderly. In Metamorfomori forms transparent move from stadiums to high-intensity value of different opacities and color plasticity dynamics. Organic forms are animated from the inside, that the images projected onto its biological cycle of events in an evocative, almost spectral. Brezicki works with the interpolation of time picking up concepts and images of Bergson, and suggesting still images and adds the abstract time (Deleuze), to compose dynamic visual and sound sequences. The author closed with a work cycle time, seeking to intensify the internal moments in the life cycle through the stresses of the natural process of metamorphosis. This in turn is related to certain experiences of the Land Art to install a black space where the final image is based on completion of the cycle and again before starting another. A request signal is determined by the artist as a turning point to reverse the time of succession and to inaugurate a non-reflection time. With these works embodied in the invisible visible through a kind of analytical audiovisual where the protagonist is the time creating the illusion of real time own cycle of nature. The internal circuitry of the process are developed by the author as windows of time (Deleuze), image-based memory that the current image in the virtual rendering inseparable.
Roberto Fernandez's Luxive, takes as its key compositional work the relationship between syntax parallel, with different ranges of tension formal sound, light and color. The resulting dynamic, consisting of approach and departure, produces continuous changes in the components and it operates here too, through transitional forms that evolved as a result of their reciprocal influences. The interplay of organic and rioja rioja abstract systems configured multiple variations between density and liquidity, among rioja rioja mater and ethereal. The process forms is particularly visible in the explosion of a myriad of light particles found trajectories that start with each other, alternating on the experience of the work as part of the same experience and the simultaneous vision. Color and light are composing visual information through which manifest the deep structure of the interrelationship of the physical world in motion in all dimensions of the cosmic. Picking the Bergson idea of duration as a process open and single, Fernández print a character in his formal elusive and open to the conceptualization of the experience with previous determinations.
1. Th.W. Adorno, Aesthetic Theory, Taurus, Madrid, 1980
2. Ray Kurzweil, The age of spiritual machines, Planeta, Buenos Aires, 2000. Top
Universidad San Martin de Porres
A body is not defined by its shape, the substance or the subject, its organs or the functions that possessed. In the plane of consistency, the body is only defined by his longitude and latitude, we can say that the collection of matter elements that belongs under this relations of movement and settlement, of speed and slowness, the collection of intensive effects of what is capable of under this kind of power. It could be said that only the effects and the local movements, the differential movements. Belongs to Spinoza bring to our notice this two dimensions of the body and the definition of the Nature Plan as Pure Longitude and Latitude. The Latitude and Longitude are two elements of a cartography. (2) We had the opportunity to test in a design workshop at the USMP a methodological approximation to the analysis of space. We had applied this method before but only in real materials as constructions (proto architectonic constructions), but this time we decided to use the digital media. The workshop starting point is the personal experience of space, in this particular case a vegetal space in nature (the space of trees and shrubs, etc), each participant choose a shrub, tree o a group of them. The students will applied the method of material analysis as the registration of space as a statistical data that includes the space components such as light, texture, roughness, speed, porosity, transparency, etc . Taking these components that determined our perception of the natural space, we make them transform in to digital parameters that the students will take as the material to build the new vegetal space. We didn't take under consideration the life process of the plants as a generative code, but we incorporated a walkway that will be the starting point of the transformation of the digital space. The process of transformation will affect also the walkway that until this point was only a topographical surface will incorporate texture and the space. What we are showing is the first stage of a design process that will end on a space called the House of the Gardener; this stage was called Process of Densification. We also took the concept of space as was mentioned by the philosopher Jose Luis Pardo: "the space is always full: is not a indifferent receptacle in which a person will show his body presence, spontaneity, creativity or artistic sound, graphic or visual, is always inhabit by a anonymous and massive rumor, the mute murmur of the language of things (natural and artificial), the traffic of the objects and the collections of nomad habits. Being part of it as an individual is a matter of marking the distance."(1) This process of consecutive updates of the real will allow us to explore new hybridizations of matter and the potential of expression in the digital space.
(1) Extract from The Space of the Thought, the Question about Space. Jose Luis Pardo, The forms of Exteriorization Ed.Pre-Textos
(2) Remembers of the Haecceidad, Gilles Deleuze - Felix Guattari, extract from A thousand plateaus. Ed.Pre-Textos Top
Makoto Sei Watanabe
INDUCTION / ALGORITHMIC : two names for the same process
In the final analysis, design is the act of solving problems by formulating answers that are backed up by the designer s intentions. The idea behind INDUCTION DESIGN is to make the process of problem solving more scientific (in the sense of verifiable). The term induction is meant to suggest a process that results in a better solution, instead of selecting a single solution and declaring it to be the absolute, as has commonly been done up to now. When a coil is brought near a magnet, an electric current is generated. Instead of being supplied directly, the current is generated by variations in the magnetic field. A current generated in this way is called an induction current. In design as well, instead of inscribing the final results directly on diagrams, it is possible to use programs that solve for specified conditions to "generate" designs that are "better". This is the INDUCTION DESIGN method. From another viewpoint, the same method can also be called ALGORITHMIC DESIGN , when we place more weight on clarifying the procedures that lead to the solution. An algorithm is a procedure that specifies the initial steps to take in this situation, and what to do next. In ALGORITHMIC DESIGN, a procedure is created by defining the value standards required in the design, assigning weights, and specifying the processing order, and then that procedure is used to carry out the design and obtain a better solution. Top